Evaporation is a technology based on a physical process that finds large and efficient application in treatment of industrial wastewaters, in particular of complex matrix ones, namely containing different typologies of pollutants, for treatment of which the use of other technologies doesn’t allow to obtain satisfying results. Against investment and operating costs that made it one of the most expensive technologies for water depuration, evaporation is able to achieve very high performances, both in relation to quantity (relation between distillate and concentrate) and to quality (chemical-physical characteristics) of the treated water.
Evaporation and condensation processes for wastewater depuration can be obtained through the use of different techniques of heating and cooling of the water, such as hot and cold water systems, compression and expansion of gases by a heat pump and mechanical recompression of vapour. The factor mainly bearing on CAPEX (Capital Expenditures) is the material of which plants are made. Evaporators are indeed realized in stainless steel (AISI 316L, DUPLEX) or in metal alloys (HASTELLOY) or in silicon carbide, that guarantee a high resistance to corrosion caused from solutions. Operating costs (OPEX) are determined almost totally from consumptions of electrical and thermal energy that can nonetheless be reduced thanks to use of under vacuum technology and of multiple effects systems.
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